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What do Millennials think the world will be like in 2020? This was the driving question of a new study by Viacom International Media Networks, “MTV Knowing Youth: 2020 Vision.”
This report was based on an online survey of over 6,800 people ages 15 to 24 across 32 countries, as well as qualitative work in 17 markets. The qualitative work had a sample of 72 participants and included in-person interviews in respondents’ hometowns, as well as user-generated, ethnographic videos.
Taken from that analysis, here are some key insights on what global Millennials think – or at least hope – life will be like in the year 2020:
In general, the world is a better place to be. Millennials are optimistic about the future. They do have concerns — about the economy, their ability to find work, and technology getting out of hand — but they generally believe the only possible future is one that is better than today. They see changes to society as having great potential to improve the economic and political issues that they observe.
Society is fairer and more equal.This more egalitarian world that Millennials hope for emerges from the injustices that they see in world politics. Social issues play a large role in their view of politics, and the world to which they aspire is free of poverty and corruption, embraces gay rights, is more democratic, and is liberated from class systems (particular issues tend to be applied to specific countries). However, while in general they are interested in global issues, they’re mainly motivated to change problems that are closer to home.
The economy is stronger and more stable. While most Millennials don’t fully understand the complexities of the economic crisis, they have a great desire for economic stability. Most were not personally touched by the global recession until they started to look for work and this is now their main concern. With so many Millennials unable to afford to move out of their parents’ homes, there is a feeling of frustration that while there is a world of opportunity open to them, they’re unable to take advantage. They’re neither angry nor pessimistic about the economic climate; they simply accept the situation and expect that it will improve as long as citizens play their part.
There is more renewable energy and less waste. While environmental issues aren’t necessarily a frequent topic of conversation with friends, Millennials are an eco-minded generation because they were brought up with the realities of a planet running out of natural resources. They hope for a world that makes the most of what’s available. Technology can aid in this journey, as long as it doesn’t produce too much waste.
Technology will make life easier – but it’s a double-edged sword. While Millennials enjoy the benefits of advancing technology, they also have a very real fear of its potential to compromise relationships. And when it comes to work, their views are similarly conflicted. Technology promises future opportunity in the form of jobs that don’t yet exist, but it also has the potential to cause unemployment by automating jobs that people do today. Rather than seeing it as the answer to all things in the future, Millennials are acutely aware of the responsibilities that come with technological advancements.
The world is more peaceful and tolerant of diversity. While the desire for peace does not make Millennials unique from other generations, this is nonetheless a strong theme for them. They don’t want conflict in the world, and their first-hand experience in mixing with other cultures causes them to struggle with the concepts of intolerance and war. They see it possible to communicate, share, and identify with people who are different from them.
THE KIDS OF TODAY AND TOMORROW (2014)
Nickelodeon have undertaken the most detailed analysis to date of kids around the world. In this truly global exploration, we have reached out to every corner of the world, including several countries we have never before explored in this level of detail – for example, Greece and Egypt. In total we have conducted our research in 32 countries.
KIDS OF TODAY AND TOMORROW builds on a significant heritage of U.S. and international projects undertaken by the Viacom family. Nickelodeon Kids & Family GPS has focused on the family today, painting a detailed global picture of roles and relationships and highlighting, for example, the disappearance of the Generation Gap and the evolution of Family Fusion. Through KIDS OF TODAY AND TOMORROW, we can deepen our insight into the world of kids and families. Our sample includes 6,200 interviews with the 9-14 age group.
KIDS OF TODAY AND TOMORROW has identified 5 key themes shaping their world view and impacting on the choices they make on a daily basis. As well as outlining the main characteristics which define the youngest Millennials today, we examine how brands and services might want to respond, both in terms of communication content and also tone of voice – key learnings for all of us involved in serving the complex audience comprising these “last wavers” of the Millennial generation.
A number of factors play into this theme and the first of these is happiness. Today’s youngest Millennials are overwhelmingly happy: 88% score themselves very high on the happiness scale –and in fact our data suggests that happiness levels within this age group have actually increased in the last 6 years. Spending time with family and friends rises to the top as the factor generating happiness in most countries.
Happiness outweighs stress by a factor of over 3 to 1: while almost 9 in 10 young Millennials describe themselves as very happy, only 24% report high levels of stress; and our data shows that reported stress levels have fallen since 2006. Taking these factors together, we suggest that they combine to form a “virtuous circle” of mutual support which helps to create an overall sense of confidence.
• Belief in themselves – 65% believe not only that they are smart but also that they are smarter than other people
• Belief in their future – despite everything, a large majority (84%) believe they will earn more than their parents
Authenticity is a key value for them and they live with their feet firmly on the ground. 94% report wanting to be true to the close circle around them and 93% to be true to themselves. This desire to “keep it real” in life extends to the relationships which are most meaningful in their lives. When it comes to the people who inspire them or the people they trust, it’s all about close family and friends. They might feel inspired by celebrities and sports stars, but they know not to trust them. 49% of the youngest Millennials name a member of their family as the #1 best friend in their life – rising as high as 90% in Morocco and 87% in Brazil.
Our research shows a pattern in which the last wave Millennials are at one and the same time becoming both more and less sheltered. The difference is very clearly separated: in the real world, they are much more sheltered than in the past – velcro parents are cocooning their children, restricting and controlling their interactions with everything; whereas in the digital world there is often relatively little protection – kids have unprecedented exposure to global ideas and images, which can be a good thing in broadening horizons but raises concerns about what’s appropriate.
4. PROUD TO BE
Looking beyond their immediate world, we see that the youngest Millennials are also increasingly expressing a sense of affinity with their country. Their sense of national pride is growing stronger and they are more likely than 6 years ago to believe it’s important to maintain their country’s traditions.
• “I’m proud to be […]” is up to 87% (from 81% in 2006)
• Agreement that “it’s important to maintain my country’s traditions” is up to 79% from 60% in 2006
But this doesn’t mean they want to close themselves off from the world or take a narrow view: 74% think it’s great to have people from other countries coming to live here –an indication of the tolerance which is a key defining trait for this generation.
5. MORE WE THAN ME
The youngest Millennials extend the spirit of positivity which we have noted in their actions and attitudes, demonstrating a commitment to community and the wider world around them.
• 88% believe it’s important to help people in the community (and 61% have taken part in an effort to raise money for charity in the last year)
• 94% believe it’s people’s responsibility to protect the environment
Clearly digital media has a large part to play in broadening horizons and helping them to be more outward-looking. It changes the way young people think about the world and inspires them to use the power they have at their fingertips in a positive manner.
Laughter doesn’t just make people healthier and happier—it can help TV audiences connect more deeply with the advertisements they see.
Comedy Central recently commissioned a global study using online facial coding to compare the reactions of people who saw either comedy programming or more serious content, followed by a series of ads. Compared with the group primed with serious content, the comedy viewers had an average emotional uplift of 51% throughout the ad sequence.
In other words, funny content has a “halo effect” on the ads that follow it (see here for more details). Humor generates more positive feelings and stronger engagement than neutral content — and that emotional connection carries right through the commercial sequence.
The Power of Laughter also highlighted a Harvard Business School study that revealed some concrete findings on how to use entertainment in advertising. Researchers coded all branding elements in 82 commercials. Then, using web-based facial coding, they related the branding elements to emotion, attention, and purchase intention.
The study found that positive emotion in commercials captures people’s attention and guides it to the brand and message elements. It also revealed that entertainment and engagement are highly correlated.
There are some rules for using entertainment in commercials, however. While entertainment does a good job of maintaining people’s attention, it improves purchase intent only up to a certain point – because more entertainment can mean less information in ads. Too much of it can crowd out the brand message.
Entertainment that’s associated with a brand improves purchase intent, while entertainment unrelated to the brand diminishes it. There should be room for storytelling around the brand. In order to raise purchase intent, the brand should be part of the story and not mentioned only at the end. Also, humor can be a quick win when aiming to entertain — but music, good storytelling, and top-notch creative are also effective.
Comedy Central International executed a study that illustrates the positive impact of entertainment. Using a large, global sample, this research presented a Coca-Cola ad to groups who first were shown either funny or serious priming content. In the commercial, Coca-Cola sustains engagement through high entertainment. It introduced branding mid-ad and integrated it directly into the heart of the action.
This ad generated an emotional connection and created a strong, positive brand impression. And throughout the commercial, the viewers who had seen comedy content beforehand showed consistently higher engagement than those who saw serious content.
So, what’s the main takeaway from all of this research? Presenting your message within a format that is both entertaining and consistent with your brand can lead to higher engagement, as well as improved purchase intent.
Viacom International Media Networks Northern Europe examines the media use and advertising effects on children
– Television is leading in terms of usage and advertising effects
– Cross-media campaigns have higher advertising impact
– 2,800 children aged between six and 13 years in six European countries participated
2.800 children and their parents from Belgium, Germany, Denmark, the Netherlands, Poland and Sweden participated in the latest survey on media use by Viacom International Media Networks (VIMN) Northern Europe. The study shows that today’s 6-13 year olds are truly the first “digital natives”: televisions, computers, tablets and smartphones are now as common as having breakfast and brushing your teeth. In almost all interviewed households in Northern Europe TVs and computers or laptops can be found (99 or 98%), 9 out of 10 households own a smartphone, 74% own a tablet. Especially in Germany, the use of tablets and smartphones has risen sharply in the last wee while. A year ago only 6% of children had their own tablet, today 21% own one. The smartphone ownership rate rose from 26 to 41%.
Children are very firm in dealing with technical devices, they use these devices naturally in their daily lives – either singularly or while multitasking – and are often very free in choosing the content. The survey showed that the average screen usage is 210 minutes on a week day, on the weekend the use is as much as 4 hours. Television with an average of 88 minutes daily screen time takes up the main part, followed by computer / laptop (57 minutes), tablet (53 minutes) and smartphone (40 minutes). For brands, it is therefore more and more important to offer young media users individual concepts across all the different media devices.
TV advertising has the strongest impact
Advertising is part of the daily routine when it comes to media and communication of „digital natives“. Advertising and its messages are often subject of the parent-child-discussion and determine the purchase behavior across all sectors. In all countries, TV is not only the medium with the highest usage, but also the medium with the highest advertising recall: More than eight out of ten children in Germany recall advertisements on TV, half of those are saying they often or very often watch TV ads. Most importantly, the study shows that the acceptance of television advertising is very clearly confirmed by the parents.
In addition, about half of the 6-13 year old users are familiar with advertising on laptops or computers. Slightly less kids are prone to advertising on mobile devices or on tablets: Only one in five children says, he or she remembers advertising on their smartphone or tablet. So reaching children through online devices obviously gives room for improvement given the usage rates – especially since children are open for advertising on mobile and wireless devices: 37 percent of young users say they click at least occasionally on online advertising.
Higher advertising impact through cross-media campaigns
The study also shows: cross media campaigns have a much higher impact on children than mono-media campaigns. The advertising effect was tested extensively on 120 children in Germany using eye tracking, facial coding and interviews. Result: The uplift measured by cross-media campaigns is significantly higher than the sum of individual effects. The study also shows: After watching a TV spot children spend more time watching online advertising formats (+ 5% for display ads, 12% for video ads). In addition, after previously having had TV contact, considerably more positive emotions were measured during the reception of online advertising (+ 40%).
Comedy Central: Influencers from the North
Word-of-Mouth is a key driver of success for today’s brands. But how do you know if it’s effective? Is every consumer mentioning a brand or product equally important – or are mentions from some consumers more valuable than others? To find out, Viacom International and Comedy Central developed a “Comedy Influentials Study” to elaborate on conversations about brands. One of the report’s main goals was to show where to find the consumer segment with the greatest Word-of-Mouth potential: the Influential Innovators.
The analysis was based on a quantitative online survey of 1,000 people ages 16 to 49 in each of four countries: Poland, Sweden, Germany, and The Netherlands. Here are the report’s key findings:
Most consumers have conversations about brands on a weekly basis.
- About 60-80% of consumers in the four countries had talked about brands in the last week
- These conversations happen both online and offline, with face-to-face conversation leading
- Most discuss brands with friends and family
- Consumers discuss a wide variety of brand-related topics – including price, promotions, product features, and advertisements
Conversations about brands differ in terms of sentiment and the impact they generate. While more conversations are positive than negative, more also have a low impact.
- In the four countries, an average of 60% of conversations about brands were positive and 40% were negative
- But when it comes to impact – influencing someone’s image of a brand either positively or negatively, or making them curious to try the product – more are low-impact (60%) than high-impact (40%)
Based on sentiment (positive/negative) and impact (ability to change opinions), there are four types of brand conversations: Ballad, Bashing, Bonding, and Barking.
- Ballad: positive sentiment and high-impact
- Bashing: negative sentiment and high-impact
- Bonding: positive sentiment and low-impact
- Barking: negative sentiment and low-impact
Some brands are more successful than others at creating successful Word-of-Mouth.
- In general, the technology category has more ballad conversations than the other categories examined (automotive, telecom, clothing, and beverages)
- Audi, Samsung, and Apple are the brands with the most ballad conversations
Consumers differ in their social influence and speed of adoption. Among them, there are four types: Influential Innovators, Independent Innovators, Social Spreaders, and Followers.
- Influential Innovators: high social influence, high speed of adoption
- Independent Innovators: low social influence, high speed of adoption
- Social Spreaders: high social influence, low speed of adoption
- Followers: low social influence, low speed of adoption
Consumers who adopt new products and services quickly are often also the ones influencing others. On all topics, Influential Innovators are the most influential.
- Social influence and speed of adoption are highly correlated
- In the four countries, the percentage of Influential Innovators varied (ranging from 18% to 41%)
- Influential Innovators influence others more than other groups across all topics examined — especially products/services, technology, TV shows and movies, bars/restaurants/museums/stores, favorite brands, and vacation destinations
Comedy Central has a higher relative share of Influential Innovators – especially among heavy viewers.
- Comedy Central is the only channel in the four countries with an over-representation of Influential Innovators
- Heavy Comedy Central viewers are 35-68% more likely to be Influential Innovators than light/non-viewers in the four countries
- Most Comedy Central viewers consider themselves Influential Innovators in technology (ranging from 31% to 53% in the four countries)
- Comedy Central viewers are more positive when discussing brands, having the highest rate of “ballad” conversations across all categories and brands
Humor and fun are the most important drivers of Word-of-Mouth — and Comedy Central outperforms the competition in both areas.
- Humor and fun are the qualities of a commercial that are most likely to inspire conversation, and those attributes are strongly associated with the Comedy Central brand
Being a Kid Today
What does it mean to be a child today? What has changed and what has remained the same since the parents of kids today were children? To answer these questions, Viacom International Media Networks/Nickelodeon recently conducted a project with parents of kids under 12 in the UK, France, Spain, Germany, and Italy. Here are key findings from that study:
Parents feel it was easier to be a kid when they were growing up, and that they had more time to do the things they liked.
- 43% of parents felt it was easier to be a kid when they were growing up – while 30% think it’s easier today and 27% believe both times are about the same
- 41% had more free time when they were kids – slightly higher than the 37% who say they had as much time to hang around as their kids do
Being able to use technology is the biggest advantage of being a child today, according to parents.
- 45% of parents say getting to use technology is the best thing about being a child today
- The next best things are “having more things than I did as a kid” (31%), going to fun places (27%), not having any real responsibilities (22%), and being cared for by parents (18%)
Most parents believe their kids are happy – though parents of 1 to 2 kids are more likely to report this than parents of 3 or more kids.
- Overall, nearly 8 in 10 kids are reported to be happy
- 82% of parents with 1 or 2 kids say their children are happy – compared with 62% of parents with at least 3 kids
Kids are involved in 2 to 3 activities outside of school, with sports as the most popular choice.
- A third play individual or team sports
- The next most popular activities are exercise unrelated to sports (17%), music lessons (16%), after-school clubs (15%), after-school care (13%), and dance team or lessons (12%)
Families do an average of 8 activities together, suggesting that family time is still a priority.
- Watching TV (89%) and playing (79%) are the top family activities
- The next most popular are going to the park (70%), watching DVDs (69%), going on excursions/day trips (65%), and reading books (65%)
Being polite, taking care of their things, and doing homework are the top rules and responsibilities at home for most kids.
- Nearly 9 out of 10 kids are expected to be polite; nearly 8 in 10 are expected to take care of their belongings, do homework, and be honest
- Others include helping before and after meals (63%), cleaning their rooms (53%), make their beds (39%), help with cooking (32%), and care for pets (32%)
Almost two-thirds of children don’t receive a weekly allowance – but those who do spend it on sweets and toys.
- Of those who get an allowance, the average is € 2.50
- 53% buy sweets and treats with their allowance, 45% buy toys, about a third (especially boys) buy collectibles, and a quarter buy books
Parents (especially mothers) are most involved in their children’s lives, followed by grandparents. Mothers also spend more time with kids than fathers.
- Mothers (95%) are the relatives most likely to be involved with children, followed by fathers (88%) and grandparents (72%)
- Approximately 45% of siblings, aunts, and uncles play a role in children’s lives, while a third of kids have cousins involved in their lives
- Most kids spend more time with their mothers (57%), and a third spend equal amounts of time with both parents
Making new friends is easy for most kids. And in spite of the trend toward meeting friends online, they do spend time with friends in person.
- Over 60% of kids find it easy to make new friends — 1 in 4 rate it as “very easy”
- Making new friends is slightly easier for girls
- Over half of kids have 1 to 6 friends that they see in person (with more in the 4-6 range)
More than 9 out of 10 kids like school. Their favorite things about school are being with friends, recess, and gym/sports.
- Nearly 60% of kids like school a lot; over a third like school a little
- By far, being with friends is their favorite thing about school (75%)
- Recess (61%) ranks as their second favorite thing, and gym/sports (42%) slightly outranks learning (40%)
When it comes to TV, kids watch an average of 11 hours per week. Parents are present about two-thirds of the time.
- Half of families decide together what shows to watch
- Older kids have more influence over the TV
- 40% of parents control what their kids watch – though most let kids have their say
- Animated children’s shows and cartoons are kids’ favorite TV genres
Kids use an average of 3.5 electronic devices. TV, video game console, and computer/laptop are the main devices kids use regularly.
- TV is by far the most common device kids use (73%) – followed by video game console (61%), computer/laptop (57%), and portable game systems like DS/PSP (49%)
- Nickelodeon viewers tend to use more devices
- TV is the device parents feel would be hardest to live without (40%), followed by laptop (12%) and gaming console (11%)
Carlos Garcia is Sr. Director of Research & Insights for Nickelodeon International. Follow Carlos at @CGarciaConnect
Q: How do I learn more about Viacom, is there someone I can speak with?
A: The best way to stay in touch with us is through our social network communities. Here, you can find the most recent jobs, breaking news about Viacom and ask questions about the application process. Please click the social network icons at the top of any page in this site, or check out the Viacom Blog.
Q: What types of jobs are available at Viacom?
A: Viacom offers a wide variety of opportunities spanning all areas of our business. Employment opportunities can be found within our media networks including MTV, VH1, Nickelodeon, Comedy Central, TV Land and more, as well as across our corporate divisions such as Finance, Human Resources, Legal, Corporate Communications, Administrative and beyond.
Q: How do I apply for an internship at Viacom?
A: Viacom offers internships to qualified full-time college students with the opportunity to put their know-how to use and get practical real-world experience. Click on the http://www.mtv.se/jobb for the Nordic region at Stockholm office.
Kids and the role of fun
With “Kids and the Role of Fun,” the North cluster explores the phenomenon of humor, fun and laughter and connects these experiences to media and television.
The study discovers how kids and parents perceive fun, the things they find funny, and things they do not find funny. In addition, the study conducted an Advertising Impact to understand how humor influences the perception and effect of commercials.
Here are some of the keyfindings:
According to experts, fun can be defined as a “playful modification of reality” in which absurdity is mixed with elements of everyday life. This combination causes kids to laugh, which makes them feel good about themselves and others.
The Benefits of Laughter
Laughter has 3 main benefits:
Social: laughter brings families and friends closer together. Psycho-physical: kids retain information better when it is presented in a humorous way and feel less anxious about making mistakes in humorous situations. Health: laughter serves as an important part of the healing process since it helps kids and families relieve tension and pain
The social benefit of laughter is present in the top 3 situations that cause kids to laugh most: Playing with friends Playing with family Watching Videos/DVDs When parents were asked who makes their child laugh, the most common responses were: Friends of the child Siblings Mother Father TV characters Parents in most Northern European countries rank TV characters as the 5th thing most likely to make their kids laugh. In Poland, parents rank TV characters as the 4th thing most likely to make their kids laugh. Kids enjoy laughing more with other people than laughing alone.
Funny TV Differs Across Age Groups
6-9 year-olds mainly laugh at playful wrestling, whereas 10-13 year-olds tend to laugh more from TV programs. Despite these differences, TV represents a significant source of laughter for kids. Overall, TV is the number 1 thing that causes kids to laugh, followed by playful wrestling and pets.
TV is the Source of Fun
Kids and parents both expect TV to provide them with fun and laughter. TV shows and series best cater to this need, followed by short videos and books. Nickelodeon is seen as a channel that offers funny shows, seen especially in Spongebob Squarepants and the Penguins of Madagascar’s use of exaggerated humor to handle everyday situations.
Fun is Universal
Gender and cultural differences do not have a large impact on what kids find funny. Throughout Northern Europe boys and girls find the following funny:
- Slapstick humor
- Clownish humor
The same holds true for situations deemed as not funny. Overall kids of both genders and from different cultures do not laugh about pain, illnesses, and misfortunes.
Commercials are key sources of laughter for kids. Younger kids especially identify with commercials about toys. Older kids relate to advertisements about toys as well as ones aimed towards adults. Kids tend to remember commercials aired in funny contexts more than those presented in serious contexts. The intention to buy also increases as a result of viewing a commercial in a funny context. Nickelodeon provides this funny context: 70% of kids rate Nickelodeon as funny!
The study was conducted using different methodologies. Desk Research and 4 expert-interviews were used as the basis for the theoretical framework. After this, 24 qualitative interviews were conducted in Germany and the Netherlands to fine-tune the quantitative questionnaire and provide a larger context. More than 3,000 kids and parents of 6-13 year olds were then interviewed online. Data regarding commercials mainly came from the eye-tracking and Pupillometrics part of the study, which focused solely on Ad Impact.
Girls vs Boys: What’s the difference?
As part of the ongoing “MTV Knowing Youth” exploration, Viacom International commissioned a study to answer these questions. It took the form of a 10-minute survey among males and females 12 to 34 in France, Germany, Italy, Spain, the UK, Colombia, Argentina and Mexico. Respondents were recruited from the Viacom online community and fieldwork occurred in late May/early June.
Here are key findings from that study:
Females are more likely than males to believe gender roles exist (79% vs. 69%)
Over 70% feel roles have improved in positive ways – Latin
Americans are the most likely to believe this, Italians the least likely
About 30% agreed that men are more rational, men are natural breadwinners/women are best at staying home, or men are messy
About 20% agreed that men are better at math, women are meant to be small and graceful, women can’t drive, and women are not good at sports
Over half feel it’s okay to target them with different products and messages
Just under half say the media reinforces gender roles
About half agree that the media portrays women as objects of desire
Three-quarters of females agree that women are more independent today – and just over half of males
6 in 10 agree that gender roles are more egalitarian when it comes to jobs, housework, and childcare
Females are considerably more likely than males to feel that women are more career-oriented and professionally driven, and that gender roles are less strictly defined nowadays
Half of Millennials believe gender roles are not predetermined at birth – within this group, some believe society creates and reinforces gender roles, while others feel that people can freely decide which role to adopt
Just 14% believe that women and men are predisposed at birth to different roles
A quarter are somewhere in the middle, believing that while people are pre-disposed to gender roles, society also plays a part
While Millennials see women’s higher participation in the workforce as good for family finances, they also see women juggling more responsibilities
However, they also see advantages in men’s higher involvement in housework/childcare and flexible working hours for parents
Seven in ten feel they do not have the same career opportunities available to them as men, and that women have to sacrifice more than men to climb the ladder
Females are almost twice as likely as males to say that women have to be twice as talented and work twice as hard as men to get to the same level
About half believe that mechanics, firefighters, electricians, and soldiers should be men
About a fifth to a third believe that secretaries, homemakers, receptionists, flight attendants, hairdressers, and nurses should be women
Women are much more likely to look for specific attributes in a partner
Sense of humor, good communication, and fidelity are other important attributes
Almost 3 out of 4 agree that couples should share domestic responsibilities
Millennial men are almost twice as likely as women to say they share household responsibilities equally
Female Millennials are more than four times more likely than men to say they do the majority of the housework with some help from their partners
In spite of this disparity, the majority believe that the split is fair (58% women, 68% men)
8 in 10 agree that childcare should be shared equally by both partners
Men were twice as likely as women to believe they share childcare tasks equally
Women are four times more likely than men to say they are mainly responsible for childcare but their partner is actively involved.